If somebody would tell 7 years ago that Intel will support open source firmware, he would be laughed at instantly. If we recall time, like 15 years ago where the datasheets were more open and were sufficient to write open source firmware, today it is not possible. Silicon vendors are hiding the intellectual property contained in the processors. It would seem like the open source firmware is doomed, but…
Thankfully there are companies and Intel employees that try to make impact and change this situation. For example Google supporting the coreboot project on their Chromebooks encourage Intel to release the Firmware Support Package (FSP). The FSP is a bundled silicon initialization code in a binary form with well documented interface and configuration options. It simplifies new hardware enabling and reduces cost of overall firmware development. While it doesn’t solve all problems and sometimes causes issues, kudos should go to Intel for supporting the open source firmware. Special credits should go to the open source firmware community members from Intel: Nathaniel DeSimone, Vincent Zimmer, Brian Richardson and Isaac Oram. The are often present on various open source firmware events on communities, few examples of their contribution::
- OSCF2018 Keynote
- OSFC2019 Intel Open Platform Enabling Plans
- OSFC2019 Hardening Firmware Components with Host-based Analysis Tools
OSF on Tiger Lake platform
Tiger Lake is the codename of the 11th generation Intel processors. We had the pleasure to get the Tiger Lake Reference Validation Platform (RVP) and test the available open source firmware options. coreboot development for Tiger Lake begun some time ago so that when FSP is released, the build target for Tiger Lake RVP should be ready. This however is different from EDK2 MinPlatform. The open board implementation is released some time after FSP. But let’s start form the beginning.
Tiger Lake implementation in coreboot was the first we have tried before going with MinPlatform because the latter wasn’t available yet. For reasonably experienced engineer it is quite simple to configure the build, since almost all the options are in place when selecting the TigerLake RVP platform. However, one may miss the microcode binary when building coreboot. Typically one extract the microcode blob from the original BIOS binary shipped with the platform if the microcode is not disclosed or publicly available. When extracted simply change the configuration options to include microcode external binaries and point to the path with extracted microcode, done.
I will omit the build process here since I would like focus more on problems and their possible solutions. If you are interested in building coreboot for RVP platform please refer to Booting coreboot on Intel Comet Lake S RVP8 blog post
The first challenge I have encountered is that the platform did not print any output on any of the serial consoles, although it is capable of printing it according to the schematics. Thankfully the RVP platforms have 7-segment displays for post codes which makes it easy to debug instructions after reset vector. It occurred that it stops in the cache as RAM setup. At this point there is not much one can do without support or bug history. So I have sent an email to coreboot mailing list and got a reply that older microcode revisions had problem with new CAR setup.
I have followed the
Tim Wawrzynczak advise
and turned off the
INTEL_CAR_NEM_ENHANCED (thank you Tim for the hint by the
way). I did the trick and I could see the serial output on the console. “Now it
is a piece of cake” I thought… Then I saw the
FSP memory init returned an error. Great, now what?
Second challenge is the memory initialization and configuration. After
investigating the source code I noted the Tiger Lake RVP mainboard has LPDDR4
configuration. But wait, my platform has 2 DDR4 SODIMMs… That explains the
error. The typical difference between LPDDR and DDR memory is that the former
requires an exact mapping of memory signal from CPU to DRAM to be passed to FSP.
So simply zeroing this configuration should be enough. Also the memory
initialization was called by
meminit_lpddr4x which was not suited for DDR4, so
I had to change it to
meminit_ddr4 with appropriate parameters for SMBus SPD
addresses. After these modifications I could past through the memory
Another challenge faced was the CPU initialization in coreboot. I was getting board resets during MCE (Machine Check Error registers) clearing which I have written about here on coreboot mailing list.
Till today I haven’t got any response, however, I managed to resolve the problem as well. When investigating the logs I noticed that the microcode is not automatically loaded before the reset vector (wait, what?! how?!). For reminder, the microcode is being loaded through FIT table before reset vector since Haswell (4th generation) processors. This could be due to the processor being engineering sample (which is common for RVP platforms). I had placed an explicit call to update microcode in the coreboot’s bootblock (the very first stage executed after reset vector) then I got past the PCI enumeration phase.
Right after the PCI enumeration phase I was hit with FSP notify error. No idea what could cause this issue, since the notify phases typically do not do much, but yet I managed to hit an error. To this point I haven’t been able to figure out what is wrong. Trying to narrow it down with debug FSP binary didn’t help as well, because the FSP asserts in Thunderbolt/USB type C initialization. I finally ended up disabling Thunderbolt.
I am still not close to booting an operating system and what is most frightening, I had to disable most I/O devices (USB, SATA, PCIe), yet those that were enabled refused to work, so I have no media to boot an OS from… At this point I decided to try a different path, that is EDK2 MinPlatform. You may find all the modifications on Dasharo coreboot repository.
EDK2 besides the open source common modules for UEFI compliant firmware also contains the platform code hosted in a separate repository called edk2-platforms. This is where Intel publishes the reference board support code that integrates with FSP to boot RVP platforms. The TigerLake open board packages have been published just around the same time I have been conducting my experiments. I gave it a try almost immediately with hope it will give better results.
Unfortunately I stumbled upon another challenge. As a fellow open source enthusiast I have been compiling EDK2 with Linux using GCC. Although EDK2 is supposed to support GCC5 and newer versions, it occurred it is not always true. The freshly published code was not buildable with GCC when trying with the 3mdeb edk2-docker. When giving it a little thought it is not surprising. Visual Studio compiler is the one that dominates the ecosystem of firmware. Intel, AMD and IBVs (Independent BIOS Vendors) use Windows and Microsoft compilers to build EDK2. Thus I think it was not tested with GCC compilers when published. The list of encountered problems is posted on TianoCore Bugzilla.
Thankfully Intel engineers were very helpful and responsive on these bugs. The fixes for GCC toolchain were committed quickly (in just one week) to the Tiger Lake open board packages on edk2-platforms repository.
In the mean time (before the fixes landed into repositories) I have fixed all compilation issues for GCC locally, I noticed that the packages contain support for LPDDR4 platform, again… The EDK2 FSP integration can work in two modes:
- FSP API mode - the bootloader simply calls the entry point of the FSP module by parsing the FSP header. The bootloader is also responsible for providing a pointer to UPD values that have to be patched per platform.
- FSP dispatch mode - this mode is dedicated for UEFI compliant bootloader because the FSP acts as a standard Firmware Volume detectable by PEI dispatcher. PEI dispatcher detects the FSP modules and evaluates the dependency expressions of particular PE files and decides about the order of their execution. The bootloader’s responsibility is to provide necessary protocol interfaces called Policy Updates that will set/patch the FSP UPD values per platform needs.
Switching between them is simply a build flag change. Gave a try to both, but
unfortunately without success. The
FSP memory init returned error, again…
Changing the DDR memory signals routing as in coreboot did not help. Currently I
am stuck at this problem which I have reported to the
Bugzilla. Apparently the
A0 stepping (which is an engineering sample) cannot work with the published
code. It seems I have reached a dead end.
One of the obvious solutions that would be necessary is to add the build targets for TigerLake UP3 RVP DDR4 by Intel. To get rid of build issue under different toolchains a simple CI/CD would be more than enough to build test the reference platform with supported toolchains. I believe EDK2 has CI integration which could be extended to cover edk2-platforms repository. coreboot already has the build testing of the patchsets sent for review with Jenkins for a long time. It could be also great if Intel would publish validation results for FSP and open board packages (Dasharo does it as part of its transparent validation philosophy). As far as I know, Intel publishes only the memory HCL (Hardware Compatibility List) for the FSP and microarchitectures. 3mdeb is working on Dasharo Transparent Validation System to improve the state of firmware and its features test coverage and results reporting. If you are interested how are we testing the supported hardware please read this blog post.
Silicon vendor contributions to open source firmware still lacks in some aspects. But it is understandable. The BIOS reference code provided to IBVs is well tested, while the open source support equivalents are just a subsets of the BIOS reference code providing bare hardware initialization just enough to boot the platform. This code comes in a form of FSP and the open board package to EDK2. Somewhere between this transition some human error may occur. Also it is important to have similar testing configuration. As you can see engineering sample and production SKU behavior with the same code changes dramatically. The situation is similar if not more difficult when it comes to coreboot. The open board package integration has to be rewritten in coreboot style and to coreboot interfaces/APIs. This process is tedious and error prone, it is like reinventing a wheel. Thus the community should actively support silicon vendors in testing and feedback of new microarchitectures integration.
Most of the challenges and issues describes in this post can be mitigated or
addressed with through extensive testing suggested in the
Possible solutions section. Testing on target hardware is
still a challenge, ideally we want to do it remotely. 3mdeb is advanced in that
matter and is testing firmware on real hardware on automated tests stands with
RTE in an
own laboratory. If you need extensive testing or a good maintenance for your
firmware, feel free to
book a call with us or
drop us email to
contact<at>3mdeb<dot>com. If you are interested in similar
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