fTPM vs dTPM


One of the most important topics in firmware security is TPM. You may have just heard about them in news recently as Microsoft started requiring a TPM 2.0 for Windows 11. This has been a source of great confusion as to why it’s so important, some have even theorized it’s for DRM and restricting user control. In this article, we’ll learn what TPMs are and we’ll explore the differences between the most common implementations: fTPM and dTPM.

What’s a TPM?

TPMs aren’t actually all that new. The first implementation of a dedicated chip resembling a TPM debuted in the IBM ThinkPad T23 in 2001 and implemented features like password storage and asymmetric cryptography functions. It wasn’t much more functional than a smartcard.

In 2003, IBM joined up with various companies including HP, Intel, and Microsoft and established the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance (TCPA), later known as the Trusted Computing Group (TCG). The TCPA defined the TPM standard, which has continuously evolved over the years, picking up adoption especially in enterprise and business use.

The TPM’s primary functions are to store secrets in isolation from the host OS and verify system integrity by storing measurements of the boot process in PCR registers. Without going into too much detail, it can verify the integrity of every component in the boot process and allows the establishment of a trusted computing platform.

While TPMs began as dedicated security chips, as they picked up adoption, silicon vendors started implementing them in chipsets and eventually in firmware. A firmware-based implementation is commonly called a Firmware TPM, or fTPM for short, runs in the CPU’s trusted execution environment, doesn’t take up any extra space on the board which is great for space-constrained boards, and is drastically cheaper to implement than a dedicated chip. A hardware-based implementation in a discrete package is now called Discrete TPM, or dTPM.

You may have also heard about sTPM, a software implementation of TPM running in userspace, but as it’s not at all isolated from the host OS (without the use of technologies like Intel SGX, at least) it’s mostly useful for development and for virtualization purposes as a vTPM. vTPM is an sTPM providing functionality to virtual machines, and it depends on the hypervisor for adequate isolation.

HW vs FW

One might be inclined to say that dTPM is more secure because it’s a dedicated device, but it’s not that simple and what will work best for you depends on a variety of factors. A discrete TPM is designed to be tamper-resistant, provides a higher degree of isolation, and can be certified by TCG (in fact most of them are). It is, however, slower than other implementations (though that is by design) and is commonly connected to the LPC bus which can be sniffed. Side-channel attacks are also potentially easier to perform when the TPM is located on a separate chip. It’s worth mentioning here that the TPM specification defines a standard for transport encryption, but it is rarely used.

fTPMs present a different set of security considerations: for example if the firmware is writable for an attacker it could be replaced with a vulnerable version. To prevent this, countermeasures such as firmware signing and fTPM clear on rollback need to be implemented. fTPMs also generally aren’t certified as vendors don’t generally let certifying agencies look at their sources. Lastly, fTPMs may share the attack surface with management coprocessors like Intel ME and AMD PSP.

On the other hand, fTPMs are much less vulnerable to sniffing by being contained within the CPU package. There are no exposed connections between the TPM and CPU like there is with a dTPM, which is connected to the LPC bus, so sniffing keys would require debugging the CPU with JTAG or even physically decapping it to access internal traces.

We also have to consider the particular functions provided by TPM. For example, how is secure storage implemented? dTPMs have tamper-resistant NVRAM, while with fTPMs there are a couple of possibilities:

  • TrustZone relies on trusted storage provisions in eMMC controllers
  • Intel PTT can store secrets in an encrypted portion of the SPI flash

Then we have to consider the memory security facilities:

  • ARM TrustZone defines a separate region for the “normal world” in which the usual software is run and “secure world” which runs security-critical code
  • Intel SGX can be used to define protected, encrypted regions (enclaves) with restricted access
  • AMD has memory encryption and the fTPM itself runs on an ARM coprocessor which implements TrustZone


Clearly, the answer to the question of whether dTPM or fTPM is more secure is not as clear-cut as one may think, and we have to take into account a lot of variables. If you want to explore this topic further, here are some documents to get you started:

If you think we can help in improving the security of your firmware or you looking for someone who can boost your product by leveraging advanced features of used hardware platform, feel free to book a call with us or drop us email to contact<at>3mdeb<dot>com. If you are interested in similar content feel free to sign up to our newsletter

Michał Kopeć
Junior Embedded C Developer at 3mdeb. Passionate about Linux, Free Software, and road cycling